Hydrocephalus / Hydrocephaly
- Inside everyone's brain there is a clear fluid called cerebrospinal fluid or CSF for short.
- The CSF is made inside spaces in the brain called “ventricles”. The CSF flows out over the surface of the brain and down the channel in the middle of the backbone (spinal column) to bathe and protect the brain and spinal cord. Then the fluid is absorbed into the bloodstream.
- Hydrocephalus happens when this fluid cannot drain away into the bloodstream because the normal pathways are blocked. As the fluid is still being made by the brain, the build up of CSF will cause pressure to rise inside the brain and this can lead to damage.
- Hydrocephalus is known as water on the brain.
Training / Help
Newbridge Outreach is happy to provide training about Spina Bifida / Hydrocephaly and the associated aspects of the condition.
Your School Nurse can all be contacted if help is required with Care Protocol.
Students will have link professionals in the hospital they attend.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the warning signs of a blocked shunt?
- Sudden headaches
- Raised temperature
- Unusual lethargy
- Change in vision
How is Hydrocephalus caused?
- Brain haemorrhage
- Premature birth
- Cysts or brain tumours
- Spina Bifida
- Cerebral palsy
- and in some cases the cause is unknown.
What are the educational implications for students who have Hydrocephalus?
- focus and attention
- thinking and working independently- can become dependent upon verbal prompts
- short term memory - verbal instructions, listening, remembering facts eg additon/ substraction, specific literacy difficulties
- easily distracted
- poor spatial awareness
- difficulty with writing on lines, bar charts, graphs, copying from the board
- recognsing pattern
- difficulty generalising skills learnt in other areas
- benefits from pre and over learning
- literal interupretation of language
- poor concept of passing of time.
- poor fine motor skills
How is Hydrocephalus treated?
- The focus of treatment will be to drain off the excess fluid by inserting a fine tube (called a shunt) inside one of the spaces in the brain making a small hole in the floor of one of the spaces (called a ventriculostomy).
- Both procedures involve an operation, but students usually recover quickly and return to school relatively quickly.
- Many students can have their first shunt inserted within the first few days of life.
Are there any things I need to consider when teaching a pupil with a shunt?
- Shunts are often placed for life, and only need to be replaced due to growth or complications eg blockage
- To protect the shunt, avoid contact sports, knocks to head etc
- Possible signs of acute shunt blockage may include:
vomiting, headache, dizziness, photophobia (sensitivity to light) and other visual disturbances, drowsiness and fits.
- Possible signs of chronic shunt blockage may include:
fatigue, general malaise, visual problems, behavioural changes, decline in academic performance, being just 'not right' from the carer's point of view.
- If a shunt blockage is suspected, medical advice should be sought from your neuro-surgical unit within four hours of acute symptoms starting.
- 01733 555988
Information and publications are available on all aspects of care and management.
Their national and regional staff, area and specialist advisers will give personal advice and support whenever possible.
- 0208 503 8773
Newbridge Outreach Service provides support to pupils with a range of learning, medical and physical difficulties.
- physical disability
- physical disability with associated learning/communication difficulties
- dyspraxia and related specific learning difficulties
- perceptual difficulties
- fine and gross motor skill development
- difficulties with handwriting and alternative forms of recording.
Support is provided by
- providing assessments
- setting targets for learning / writing individual programmes
- modify curriculum content and delivery
- identify and use specialist resources
- helping to provide support and advice to parents
- delivering INSET for all staff, other agencies and parents
Request for support should come from the school the pupil is attending or another Agency involved.